InfoSAWIT, JAKARTA - Triglyceride (TG) or fat/oil is the main food material and the important organic material together with the protein and carbohydrate. In its application, TG is the main component to make cream, margarine, and fat of candy in food and as the material of matrix in pharmacy and cosmetics. The physical characteristic of TG influences the physical characteristic in fat – base, such as, the texture, appearance, plasticity, morphology, and rheology.
Most products in fat – base is the mixed multi-component of TG which has fatty acid (FA) that consists of three FA attached in the back bone of glycerol by ether connection.
The variety of FA that may attach in the back bone of glycerol produces kinds of TG. Each FA is combined in triplet to make TG which has same physico chemical characteristic so it is hard to separate and analyze kinds of TG (Nollet, 2015).
The structure scheme of TAG could be seen in Picture 1
TG could be divided into two groups, depends on the FA components. TG that has one kind of FA is called TG monoacid (RA = RB = RC), and that has two or three kinds of FA is called TG diacid and triacid, and the both are categorized as the mixed TG of fatty a RA ¹ RB ¹ RC).
The complex physical characteristic derives from polymorphism of individual TG component and the mixed TG characteristic. So the research about physical characteristic of fatty product usually starts by understanding the individual TG molecule and then understanding the mixed system while combining the microscopic information within macroscopic characteristic of texture, crystal, and rheology morphology.
The physical characteristic of TG is determined by kinds of kinds of fatty acid that arrange it, for example, the saturated and unsaturated chain numbers, the bond of double-trans, the short and long chain, the chain within the even and odd carbon atom numbers, and the position of esterification from the fatty acid and glycerol carbon atom.
The difference of physical characteristic of TG in the mixture may separate. The fat fractionation process would produce the fatty component within the different melting characteristic, could be done by crystallization. Many kinds of fat, including palm oil, palm kernel oil, milk fat, and fat could be fractionated by using crystallization process to produce fat within different function. (Maisaroh, ST, MT - Perekayasa Muda, Pusat Teknologi Agroindustri BPPT)
For more, please read InfoSAWIT, March 2019 in BPPT Info